How Soil is Formed

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Today we will learn about an important topic how soil is formed. Soil is an essential natural resource for our life. So it is important for us to know how soil is formed. In this blog, we have written all the facts related to the formation of soil by researching it.

How Soil is Formed

How Soil is Formed

Soil is formed due to natural phenomena like the disintegration of rocks and organic matter etc. Two processes take place in the formation of soil, Weathering and Pedogenesis.


The soil weathering process is done in three parts

  1. Physical Weathering 
  2. Chemical Weathering 
  3. Biological Weathering

Physical Weathering 

The temperature received from the sun causes the contraction of hard rocks in the upper part. Contraction means that the upper part of the rock starts spreading and shrinking. These rocks gradually crack due to contraction.

Rainwater and atmospheric moisture enter through these cracks. Due to the extreme decreases in temperature in the winter season, the water present in the cracks starts freezing.

The water present in the pass starts turning into ice and the volume of ice is more than that of water. Due to this the water present in the cracks starts spreading while converting into ice. But there is no space in the rocks to spread.

Due to this, the pressure is exerted by the ice in the cracks of the rocks. Due to this, the cracks of the rocks start getting bigger. When this process is repeated, the rocks break into small pieces. This process is called physical weathering.

weathering of rocks and soil formation process

Chemical Weathering

Chemical weathering is of three types

  1. Oxidation 
  2. Carbonation 
  3. Hydration 

In the process of oxidation, iron particles present in rocks react with oxygen present in the atmosphere or oxygen present in water to form iron oxide. Which we call rusting or iron weathering. Due to this the rocks gradually weaken and break into small particles.


In the process of carbonation, carbon dioxide gas present in the atmosphere mixes with rainwater to form carbonic acid. Which goes into the cracks present in the rocks. Out of these, the rocks are made of calcium and limestone. Carbonic acid dissolves them very quickly. Due to which weathering of rocks starts.


In the process of hydration, when rainwater goes into the cracks of rocks. So the mineral particles present in the rocks absorb the water present in the cracks of the rocks. Due to this, the volume of these mineral particles increases and the rock becomes weak and starts breaking.

Biological Weathering

Biological weathering is done in three ways by animals, plants, and humans. There are many such creatures. Which naturally do the work of weathering rocks. Some organisms hollow out the rocks to live or make holes in them. Similarly, plants grow due to the presence of water in the crevices of the rocks.

And with time these trees and plants grow. Due to this, their roots start becoming big and thick. Because of this, the cracks of the rocks also start spreading. And rocks break and we also keep breaking rocks for our different needs.

For example, to obtain minerals, to live in, caves are made by breaking rocks. And gradually the weathering of rocks goes on Weathering caused by these processes is called biological weathering.

biological weathering
tree roots breaking rocks


After the weathering process, the rocks are broken into small particles. Various bacteria, fungi, algae, lichen, etc. are easily produced on them. And perform different biological functions. And after death, their remains accumulate organic matter.

In this way, the soil is formed by a mixture of organic and inorganic substances.

Types of Soil in India

Different types of soil are found in India. Most alluvial soil is found in India. This soil is found in an area of ​​about 1.5 million square kilometers in India. Alluvial soil is mostly on the northern coasts. Alluvial soil is considered to be the most fertile soil. It is found in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.

Black soil is the second most commonly found soil in India. It is also called regur soil. It is found in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. It is found in an area of ​​5.4 lakh square kilometers.

Iron content is high in red and yellow soil. This water purification is not done, red and yellow soil is found more in North East.

The iron content of laterite soil is high, this soil is less useful for agriculture. It is mostly used for making bricks. It is found in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Odisha.

Types of Soil in India

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black soil
  3. Red and Yellow soil
  4. Laterite soil

Importance of Soil

  1. It is an important natural component for humans and other living beings.
  2. All the trees and plants found around us get nutrients from the soil only.
  3. oil is the most important natural component of agriculture. We make our living by doing agriculture on the soil itself.
  4. Soil plays an important role in maintaining the Earth’s ecosystem.
  5. Man gets food for survival only with the help of soil.

Save Soil

We all know that soil is an important part of our life and we also know that all living beings and plants get nutrients from the soil. Soil plays an important role in maintaining life on earth. But in this era of modernity, we are gradually harming this very important natural component by polluting it. While doing this, we often forget that 87 percent of the living beings present on the earth are dependent on the soil. By harming the soil, we are also putting their existence in danger. And if it continues like this, according to scientists, the soil suitable for farming may end in the next 60 years. So it is our responsibility to prevent the soil from getting polluted in order to maintain life on the earth. Appropriate steps have to be taken to protect the soil. Save the soil and secure your future.

save soil
save the soil


What is the full form of soil?

Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods.

Who first discovered soil?

Who first discovered soil?

Vasily Dokuchaev (1846-1903), Russian geologist.

What is soil study called?


Where is the oldest soil found?

 in South Africa.

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